Monday, 31 December 2012

How to Prevent Fears From Overpowering your Life!

Panic attacks are common psychological conditions that occur as a part of anxiety disorders. But, they are different than the other types of anxiety disorders. Panic attacks come suddenly and often seem to be unprovoked. They are quite often disabling too.

What are the Risk Factors for this Illness?
  • Some other psychological illnesses, including posttraumatic stress disorder and schizophrenia, can increase the risk of this condition.
  • Some medicines can also cause intense anxiety, leading to this ailment. These medications include stimulants such as methylphenidate, anti-diabetic medications like insulin and anti-malarial drugs like quinine. People may suffer from this condition when they suddenly withdraw corticosteroids without tapering the dose slowly.
  • Some studies have highlighted that the use of food additives like aspartame can also cause this problem.
  • Heredity plays a strong role in the development of this illness.
  • Some studies have pointed that deficiencies of zinc and magnesium may also play a role in developing this disorder.
  • History of physical or sexual abuse during childhood can increase the risk of suffering from this illness.
Some Common Signs and Symptoms of this Illness are Mentioned Here:
  • Palpitations
  • Sudden pain in the chest
  • Upset stomach
  • Difficulty in breathing
  • A fear of being smothered
  • Trembling of the hands
  • Feelings of detachment
  • Distorted perceptions
  • A feeling of helplessness
What are the consequences of this condition?
In children, this condition results in a sharp decline in their performance at school. They start avoiding school and fear being separated from their parents. Substance abuse and depression are common in these children. They may develop a brooding tendency and have suicidal thoughts. 
Similarly, in adults, this condition has a negative effect on their performance at the workplace. They are unable to concentrate on their work. They also isolate themselves from others.

Possible complications:
  • Depression
  • Alcoholism
  • Financial problems
  • Heart diseases
  • Substance abuse
How to treat?
  • Use of medications
  • Stress-management techniques
  • Counseling for decreasing the sense of helplessness
  • Patient education
  • Recognizing and replacing panic-causing thoughts
  • Eating at regular times
  • Exercising regularly
  • Getting enough sleep
  • Cognitive behavioral therapy

Medications for panic disorder:
Patients are advised to use Escitalopram for the treatment of this ailment. It can also be used for managing depression and generalized anxiety disorder. It helps by preventing the reuptake of a neurotransmitter, serotonin, by the nerves, which results in an increased amount of serotonin in the brain. This helps to control the symptoms of the condition.

Dosage Recommendations:
Patients can take Generic Escitalopram in a dosage of 10 milligrams, once daily. The dose can be increased to 20 mg per day after a week. It can be taken with or without food. Patients can contact a physician to know more regarding the dose of this medication that is suitable for them.

We expect people to overcome their childhood fears once they grow up. But, some fears may strike in adulthood. These fears can be overcome by using Escitalopram along with proper counseling.

Thursday, 22 November 2012

Hypothyroidism Explained - Here are the Answers you always Wanted

Hypothyroidism is a disorder wherein the thyroid gland is not able to secrete sufficient quantities of the hormones that are required for the body to function properly. Insufficient hormonal secretions tend to disrupt almost all the chemical reactions inside the body.

If hypothyroidism is not treated, it could cause problems like obesity, infertility, heart disorders and joint problems, besides worsening any already existing health conditions.

Hypothyroidism Causes:

•    Pituitary Disease: The pituitary gland is responsible for the thyroid functioning properly. When this gland does not function appropriately, a person could either suffer from an underactive or overactive thyroid gland.

•    Hashimoto's Thyroiditis: This condition is amongst the most common causes of hypothyroidism. This disorder causes the immune system to see the thyroid gland as a foreign, harmful object. This causes the immune system to attack thyroid gland tissues, thereby leading to inflammation of the thyroid as well as a considerable decrease in the production of thyroid hormones.

•    Iodine Deficiency: A deficiency of iodine within the body can lead to hypothyroidism. A sufficient amount of iodine is extremely important for normal thyroid activity. A lack of iodine can make it difficult for the thyroid glands to produce the required hormones.

•    Damaged Thyroid Gland: A damaged thyroid gland is one more cause of hypothyroidism. A patient taking treatment for hyperthyroidism over a period of time is at risk of developing a damaged thyroid gland. Long-term usage of anti-thyroid medicine could suppress the thyroid glands to a point where it may cause hypothyroidism.

•    Cancer Treatment: Cancer treatment requires radiation therapy to eradicate cancer cells. Nevertheless, in case the target site of treatment is in the neck region, then it may interfere with the thyroid gland, thereby leading to hypothyroidism.

Hypothyroidism Symptoms:

The initial signs of hypothyroidism are:

•    Fatigue
•    Constipation
•    Loss of appetite
•    Muscle and joint pain
•    Inability to withstand cold
•    Irregular menstrual cycle
•    Reasonable increase in weight

Advanced Hypothyroidism symptoms are:

•    Hair loss
•    Weakness
•    Sleepiness
•    Weak memory
•    Change in the voice
•    Thinning eyebrows
•    Puffiness of the face
•    Lack of concentration
•    Lack of sensation in arms and legs

If hypothyroidism is not provided timely treatment, it could worsen and might cause an enlargement of the thyroid gland, also known as goiter. It may even lead to more serious complications, such as myxedema.

Once it is diagnosed, the doctor will prescribe suitable medicine to treat this condition. Medications like Levothroid are amongst the drugs most commonly prescribed to help in overcoming a thyroid hormone deficiency. Levothroid is a synthetic form of the thyroid hormone that is manufactured and released by the thyroid gland.

Levothroid has been approved to treat hypothyroidism and goiter growths. However, it is important that you utilize Generic Levothroid only when it has been prescribed by the healthcare professional.

These were a few causes, symptoms and treatments for hypothyroidism. Though this problem is extremely common amongst individuals, there are appropriate treatments, including treatment with Levothroid, available to help one overcome this condition.

Tuesday, 20 November 2012

7 Foods that can Trigger Acid Reflux

Gastro Esophageal Reflux Disease (GERD), also known as acid reflux, is a very common disorder worldwide. It is a digestive disorder which affects the normal functions of the LES (lower esophageal sphincter).

In this condition, the muscles of the lower esophageal sphincter weaken. As a result, stomach acids flow back up into the esophagus, damaging the lining in the esophagus. This causes symptoms such as nausea and heartburn. One of the primary reasons that cause GERD is eating the wrong types of food. Mentioned below are certain foods which must be avoided.

Foods to Avoid:

•    Dairy Products: Dairy products are known to increase acid secretions in the stomach. Therefore, to prevent excessive secretion of stomach acids, it is preferable to restrict the consumption of milk, cheese, etc. especially on a full stomach.

•    Acidic Foods: Some foods are acidic by nature and act like triggers for acid reflux. Grapefruits, pineapples and tomatoes are a few examples of acidic foods. Eating foods with a high acidic content will often cause acid reflux and hence they must be restricted or avoided.

•    Fried and Spicy Food: Fried foods have high amounts of trans-fats and hence cause acid reflux. Similarly, extremely hot or spicy foods irritate the stomach lining and trigger acid reflux. These foods also slow down the digestion process and cause the stomach acids to flow up into the esophagus. Therefore, it is important to curb or avoid spicy and fried foods.

•    Citrus Fruits: Some fruits are very acidic in nature and this could lead to heartburn in GERD patients. Therefore, limit or avoid the intake of fruits like grapefruits, lemons, oranges, etc.

•    Caffeine: Caffeine is known to increase stomach acid secretions and serves as an active muscle relaxing agent. As a result, it has been suggested that the intake of beverages containing caffeine must be limited to avoid acid reflux.

•    Garlic and Onions: Onions and garlic provide important health benefits. But, GERD patients must restrict or refrain from eating extra garlic and onions as they contain some compounds which can lead to acid reflux.

•    Carbonated Drinks: Avoiding carbonated or aerated beverages is recommended as they build up pressure inside the stomach. This triggers an increased production of stomach acids.

GERD Treatment:

There are many treatments available for acid reflux. Some common medications are H2 Blockers, proton pump inhibitors and antacids. Antacids are used for relieving minor symptoms like heartburn. Serious acid reflux cases are treated with proton pump inhibitor drugs and H2 blockers. Both these medications help lessen the quantities of acid produced within the stomach.

Medications like Generic Nexium are amongst the commonly prescribed drugs to treat acid reflux. Nexium is a proton pump inhibitor drug and decreases stomach acid production. This enables the esophagus and stomach to heal. But, you must use Nexium only when prescribed by the doctor.

These are some of the foods which cause acid reflux. If GERD symptoms persist, they could cause other health problems. Though avoiding such foods will help to deal with acid reflux, it is essential to consult a healthcare professional for diagnosis and proper treatment.

Tuesday, 30 October 2012

Give your skin the Gift of Beauty with Renova Retin A!

Acne is the commonest skin disease, seen in adolescents as well as in adults. Blockage in the ducts of the sebaceous glands situated in the skin is the main cause of acne.

Risk factors for acne:

No single factor can be blamed for causing acne. Acne occurs due to the simultaneous influence of several factors on the skin. Some of the factors that can cause or increase acne are given below.

  • Hormonal changes occurring in the body during puberty can lead to the formation of acne in adolescents.

  • The role of heredity in the development of acne is still not proved. But, it has been observed that people who suffer from severe acne eruptions have a family history of the same.

  • Excessive accumulation of sweat on the skin, e.g. as happens after exercising, may clog the pores of the skin, causing acne. Hence, physicians recommend that people wash their faces regularly, especially after exercise, to prevent acne. At the same time, it is important to remember that excessive washing and hard scrubbing of the face can also cause acne.

  • Pressure on the skin due to wearing of helmets, suspenders, collars or chin straps can also cause acne.

  • Use of some drugs such as antidepressants, lithium and anticonvulsants are known to increase the risk of acne eruptions. It should be noted that some medicines like oral contraceptive pills can actually help in reducing acne.

  • Bacterial infections of the skin can aggravate acne. Propionibacterium Acnes is the most common bacterium responsible for acne eruptions.

Tips for managing acne:

  • Reducing one’s intake of carbohydrates, fried food and chocolates
  • Lifestyle modifications for reducing mental stress
  • Increasing intake of water
  • Avoiding picking or squeezing pimples
  • Regular cleansing of the skin to open the pores
  • Avoiding excessive use of cosmetic products

Management of acne:

Renova Retin A cream is a highly recommended topical agent for the management of acne. Use of this cream is also beneficial for reducing wrinkles and fine lines on the skin. Renova Retin A can also be used for treating stretch marks. Renova Retin A is a Retinoid drug. It helps in reducing acne by causing extrusion of the clogged material from the sebaceous glands.

How to use?

People should apply Renova Retin A on the skin in a thin layer. In the initial period, it should be used once in 2 to 3 days. Once the skin develops tolerance to this medication, patients can start applying it once every day, preferably at night. They should contact a dermatologist to learn the exact way of using this topical agent.  

Side effects of Renova Retin A:

Renova Retin A is known to cause irritation of the skin, increased photosensitivity of the skin and redness of the skin.

Nobody likes to have ugly acne eruptions on the face. These eruptions can affect the look of a person. People suffering from this condition can use Renova Retin A so that they can get a youthful and glowing skin free from acne eruptions.

Wednesday, 10 October 2012

How Can You Detect Bronchospasm?

Symptoms of bronchospasm imitate those of asthma, a chronic condition of the lungs. Some people may experience signs of bronchospasm, even though they do not suffer from asthma. Signs of mild bronchospasm may not need extensive medical care to heal; while that of severe bronchospasm do.
Following are the main signs of bronchospasm. In case you experience any of these, you ought to consult a doctor immediately to prevent serious health consequences.
Discomfort in the Chest
Narrowing of the airways brought on due to bronchospasm produces pain, pressure or tightness in the chest while breathing the air in and worsens difficulty in breathing. If you observe a sudden attack of chest pain, you must visit a doctor right away, since it may also be a sign of an imminent heart attack.
During inhalation, air flows without any difficulty into the lungs of a healthy person. Bronchospasm impedes this flow of the air due to constricted airways. The flow of air creates a sound that resembles a whistle or a squeak like sound while passing through the contracted airways, a condition called as wheezing. Wheezing usually takes place whilst inhaling and people around a person suffering from bronchospasm can hear its sound.
Difficulty in Breathing
An episode of bronchospasm triggers mild to excessive trouble in breathing, which depends upon the intensity of constriction of the airways. Excess narrowing of the airways can spark off shortness of breath, a symptom of bronchospasm that needs immediate medical attention to heal. Irritation in airways occurred on account of bronchospasm may lead to persistent and repetitive cough. Frequent coughing aggravates the pain in chest in bronchospasm patients.
  • Causes of Bronchospasm
Bronchospasm obstructs breathing, since it constricts airways. In some people, cold, exercise and allergens can cause bronchospasm; while sometimes it is the result of a viral infection. Fortunately, all bronchospasm causes can be efficiently cured.
Bronchiolitis is an infection caused due to a virus that targets babies in the age group of 3 – 6 months. Bronchiolitis symptoms include stuffy, runny nose and fever.
Asthma leads to inflammation of the lungs. Asthma signs include wheezing, chest tightness and dry cough. Contributing factors for the development of asthma are obesity, gastroesophageal reflux disease, exposure to smoke and allergies.
Anaphylaxis signs include trouble breathing, wheezing, fainting, itchiness, bronchospasm and confusion. Anaphylaxis is a result of an allergic reaction to bee venom, medications and foods.
The treatment for bronchospasm must be started as early as possible, to ward off from further health complications. It incorporates using prescription drugs accurately as per the doctor’s advice.
Treatment for Bronchospasm
Medications like Volmax are very effective for the treatment of bronchospasm. Volmax is composed of a key agent termed as albuterol, which is a member of a category of drugs known as bronchodilators. The medicine relaxes the muscles in airways and improves airflow into the lungs.
Generic Volmax efficiently cures bronchospasm developed due to reversible obstructive airway disease in people above 6 years old. The medicine may be prescribed to be used in combination with other prescription drugs.

Friday, 28 September 2012

Clomid - bringing a smile to the faces of infertile couples!

Infertility is a term that describes the inability of a couple to bear a child. The latest advancements in the medical field have helped millions of couples to bear a child with the help of medications and surgery. But, before couples begin to use any medicine for treating infertility, it is essential to detect its exact cause. Infertility occurs due to problems in women as well as in men. Hence, it is essential for both the female and the male partner to undergo some diagnostic procedures to detect the cause of infertility.

Causative factors of infertility in males:

  • Varicocele
  • Cystic fibrosis 
  • Alcohol abuse
  • Exposure to environmental toxins including lead and pesticides
  • Cigarette smoking
  • Hormonal disorders
  • Abuse of cocaine or marijuana
  • Chemotherapy for the treatment of cancer
  • Radiation treatment 
  • Increasing age

Causative factors of infertility in females:

Most of the causes of infertility in women are related to the abnormalities associated with the production of eggs by the ovaries, the passage of the mature eggs from the ovaries through the fallopian tubes, and the implantation of the fertilized ovum. Lack of ovulation is a very common cause of infertility in women. Some other common causes of infertility in women are given below:

  • Polycystic ovarian disease
  • Advancing age
  • Endometriosis
  • Pelvic inflammatory disease
  • Structural abnormalities of the uterus
  • Uterine fibroids
  • Poor diet
  • Obesity
  • Smoking
  • Sexually transmitted diseases like gonorrhea
  • Hormonal disorders
  • Athletic training
  • Primary ovarian failure

How does advancing age reduce the chances of a woman to get pregnant?

The increase in the prevalence of infertility among females is attributed to the fact that many women, nowadays, prefer to wait until their 30s or 40s to get pregnant. However, as her age advances, the ability of a woman to conceive is reduced, due to a variety of factors that are given below:

  • The number of eggs produced and released by the ovaries is lower in older women
  • With advancing age, the risk of medical problems causing infertility also increases
  • The risk of abortion is higher in older women
  • Older women have a higher risk of suffering from an ovulatory menses than younger ones.

Management of infertility in women:

Infertility caused by anovulatory menses can be treated by using Clomid. The active component of Clomid is clomiphene citrate. This drug works by stimulating the synthesis of hormones that are required for the release of eggs by the ovaries.

Dosage of Clomid:

Women can take Generic Clomid in a dosage of 50 milligrams, once per day, from the 3rd till the 7th day of their menstrual period. Almost 3 out of 4 women conceive within 6 months of starting treatment with Clomid. Women are advised to contact a gynecologist before they start using this drug.  

Almost 10% of females and males in the reproductive age suffer from infertility. Purchase Clomid to help women to bear a child.

Thursday, 27 September 2012

Why Depression Treatment With Supportive Counseling Therapy Works Better?

Counseling as part of the treatment for depression incorporates talking out your difficulties with a mental health counselor. A supportive therapist is an expert advisor and a good listener. Various types of counseling are developed to assist patients in coping with depression. These are, cognitive behavior therapy, psychodynamic psychotherapy and interpersonal psychotherapy.

How Supportive Counseling Works?
As counseling methodology is different in every form of counseling, it is not possible to assert in general how counseling exactly treats depression; however it is hypothesized that discussing various issues with a counselor mitigates the pessimism of the patient and the problem of depression can be overcome in a more effective manner.

A good counselor is a good listener and a caring and accepting person. Many counselors affirm that the conversation with the client is a restoring experience, not just for the client but also for the counselor. A counselor can understand the patient’s concerns quite well and suggest a practical approach. Once the client feels that the counselor is trustworthy, he/she becomes more interested in seeking help and begins the dialogue. Eventually, the patient begins following the recommendations given by the counselor and starts recovering.

Effectiveness of Supportive Counseling
Studies have revealed that the efficiency of supportive counseling increases, if speaking with the counselor about your problems and emotional support given by the counselor is merged with therapies like cognitive behavioral therapy and/or interpersonal psychotherapy created to treat depression.

Cognitive Behavioral Therapy
This therapy uses a cognitive model to advice the client in solving the problems by modifying thinking, emotional responses and behavior. Cognitive therapy has demonstrated efficiency as a supportive therapy to psychiatric drugs for those dealing with mental disorders like bipolar disorder, depression, schizophrenia and substance abuse, to name a few.

CBT or Cognitive behavioral therapy educates the patient on the correlation between emotions, thoughts and behavior. While the CBT, a short-term therapy, is going on, the patient is made aware about the importance of recognizing and modifying disturbing or negative thoughts that affect behavior in a negative way. For example, a person depressed due to a broken relationship may encounter problems in leading a normal life due to continuously holding himself/herself responsible for that. A cognitive behavior therapist will convince the patient that while every aspect of life cannot be controlled; it is possible to take control on how to look at the problem and encounter it with a more practical approach.

Psychiatric Drugs
Conjunction of supportive therapy and drug treatment works best in treating depression. Duloxetine has indicated effectiveness for the treatment of generalized anxiety disorder and depressive disorder. Duloxetine is a part of a class of medicines known as serotonin noradrenaline reuptake inhibitors (SNRI). Serotonin and noradrenaline are chemicals present in the brain and are responsible for mood lightening.

Generic Duloxetine inhibits the reuptake of these chemicals by nerve cells. The action of the medicine lengthens the mood lightening effect and heals depression. Both supportive therapy and medicines are equally significant in treating depression. Family members should also take part in counseling to learn in-depth about the disease.

Monday, 24 September 2012

How NSAID Painkillers like Diclofenac Aid to Alleviate Pain

Majority of us have consumed ibuprofen or aspirin to deal with some kind of pain or to lower fever. Such medications are primarily classified under a group of drugs called as NSAIDs, that is short for non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. These medicines possess analgesic or painkilling properties and additionally aid to minimize swelling. The term non-steroidal indicates that these medicines don't have steroids and are also non-narcotic.
NSAIDs are usually suggested to handle the following signs:
  •  To give relief from distress on account of acute menstrual cramps, toothache, muscle strain, headache or migraine
  •  To decrease fever
  • To minimize inflammation that may happen because of rheumatoid arthritis
Diclofenac – A Beneficial NSAID:
A common NSAID prescribed by doctors, Diclofenac helps to cope with pain that may vary from minor to moderate. Moreover, it’s even utilised to provide respite from symptoms like joint pain, soreness or stiffness related to rheumatoid arthritis or osteoarthritis. This medicine is offered in the form of capsules, tablets, extended release tablets and powder for oral liquid.
Prior to taking Diclofenac, it is essential that the healthcare professional is informed about your complete medical background and if you are stricken with any conditions to guarantee risk-free treatment. Furthermore, this NSAID may interact with certain medicines, which can lessen its efficacy. Communicate to the physician if any of the drugs mentioned below are being taken, since they are likely to interact with this drug:
  •  Eskalith or Lithobid
  •  Any anti-depressant such as Cymbalta, Paxil, Prozac, Luvox, Zoloft, Lexapro or Celexa, etc.
  • A water pill
  •  Neoral or Sandimmune
  •  Rheumatrex or Trexall 
  •   Any other NSAIDs
  • A blood thinner such as Coumadin
Consume this medication according to the treatment plan given by the family doctor. For people who are taking it on an ‘as needed’ basis must remember that NSAIDs are the most effective when they are consumed the moment the first signs of pain occur. It may not be as effective when the pain has aggravated. Regular appointments with the general practitioner are vital to monitor progress.
Some Aspects to be Considered Before Consuming NSAIDs:
1. Have a discussion with the medical expert to be aware about any unpleasant effects that may be experienced during use and ways to manage them.
2. Some NSAIDs may be safe for use by pregnant or nursing females whereas there are a few others that can be harmful and not recommended to be used. Allow the family physician to determine which NSAID is suitable for you.
3. Intake of alcohol while consuming a NSAID can increase the likelihood of abdominal bleeding. Talk to the doctor to understand the allowable quantity of alcohol.
Various kinds of NSAIDs are available in the market, each one catering to distinct intensities of pain. You must always seek advice from the healthcare provider prior to taking any of these pain-relievers in order to understand their correct usage, precise dosage quantities and precautionary measures to be taken. Some additional approaches such as hot or cold therapy, deep breathing techniques, etc have also been considered beneficial in relaxing muscle joints and easing pain.

Friday, 21 September 2012

Know How Your Brain Perceives Pain and Learn How To Trick This Mechanism!

You grab a painkiller upon experiencing an injury or a pounding headache but do you really know the mechanisms behind your pain? All you want is a quick relief from the pain. You should first understand the way in which the brain feels pain, if you want to know how analgesics treat pain. Nociception, also known as pain perception, includes relay of discomforting stimuli from the damaged or injured part to the central system made of spinal cord and brain. A chain of events take place in pain perception.
Events in Perception of Pain
1.    Injury
Mechanical injuries such as pressure, burn, puncture, cut and/or other wounds activate the damaged tissues, which secrete chemicals like prostaglandins, bradykinin, potassium and histamines.
2.    Reception
A type of nerve cell known as Nociceptor, senses the stimuli and feels the chemicals that are released from the injured tissues.
3.    Transmission
Transmission of signals to brain takes place from the nociceptor cells through the neurons located in the central nervous system. Signals travel via the spinal cord to the brain, through the spinothalamic tract, which is also referred to as the ‘neural freeway’.
4.    Distribution
The relay station medically termed as thalamus, located in the brain spreads signals to various parts of brain. This process involves multiple pain centers, not just one. Signal processing is carried out by an area of the brain known as somatosensory cortex, which makes a person feel the pain.
Suppression of Pain
Somatosensory cortex, thalamus and hypothalamus release impulses through descending pathways for inhibiting the ascending impulses of pain, thereby relieving pain. Some signals release natural pain-healing chemicals like endorphins, dynorphins and enkephalins. These chemicals block nerve impulse transport between the neurons situated in brain pathways.
Analgesics as Pain Relievers
Analgesics function in several ways for the treatment of pain. Non-opioid analgesic drugs like ibuprofen, naproxen, aspirin, acetaminophen and NSAIDs of the similar properties work at the site of injury. They block essential enzymes and prevent inflammation, in addition to inhibiting the secretion of nociceptor stimulating chemicals.
Opioid analgesics like morphine, fentanyl and oxycodone imitate the functions of naturally occurring pain-alleviating chemicals released by body. Anti-epileptic medications and antidepressants block nerve impulse transmission in brain, to cure pain. These medicines are also termed as co-analgesics.
Treating Pain
Pain killers like Generic Ultracet have proven efficacy to heal pain. Ultracet is composed of two medications viz acetaminophen and tramadol along with other inactive agents.  It is used for treating mild to severe pain, for example, pain post surgical or dental procedures. The USFDA approved this medicine in 2001, for the use as an analgesic.
Both acetaminophen and tramadol cure pain; but in different manners. Tramadol treats pain in two ways. It binds itself with opioid receptors present on the nerves, and also prevents the re-absorption of norepinephrine and serotonin by nerves. It causes a decreased transmission of signals of pain between the nerves in brain and the spinal cord.
Acetaminophen appeases pain in brain and spinal cord by increasing the strength of stimuli of pain essential to trigger the sensation of pain. It works by inhibiting the action of an enzyme that manufactures prostaglandins.